Thyroid gland

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Thyroid gland. Symptoms of enlarged thyroids. Enlarged thyroid

Thyroid gland is endocrine gland in vertebrates, storing iodine and producing iodine-containing hormones involved in the regulation of metabolism and growth of individual cells and the organism as a whole - thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine, T4) and triiodothyronine ( T3) vSynthesis of these hormones occurs in follicular epithelial cells, called thyrocytes. Calcitonin, a peptide hormone which is also synthesized in the thyroid gland - in parafollicular or C-cess. The thyroid gland is located in the neck under the larynx in front of the trachea. In humans, the form of thyroid glands reminds  butterfly which consists of right and left lobes connected via thyroid isthmus.

As it was mentioned above thyroid gland produces two main hormones T3(triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine).  Usually thyroid gland produces nearly 80% T4(thyroxine) and about 20% T3(triiodothyronine). Thyroid hormones participate in regulation almost of all physiological processes in the organism such as activity of metabolic reactions, proteins synthesis, mental and physical activity, functional condition of cardiovascular, respiratory and reproductive system.

Along with somatotrophic hormone, triiodothyronine and thyroxine participate in regulation of growth and development of locomotor system, water-salt balance and biosynthesis of certain vitamins.

Thyroid gland
is prone to a various pathological processes which cause its dysfunction and thus affect  many organs and system in the human organism. The thyroid diseases are usually associated with changes in production of hormone, increased thyroid growth, formation of lumps or nodules and tryroid cancer. The most widespread diseases of the thyroid gland include:

Goiters - a diseases characterized by enlarged thyroid. An enlarged thyroid can indicate a numerous of different thyroid pathologies, including and cancer, patients should ask their health care provider for an examination. While enlarged thyroid is a common symptom associated with hyperthyroidism or  hypothyroidism, it may also be a result of deficiency of iodine in the nutrition. Lack of iodine affects nearly 1/5 of all human beings worldwide.

Enlarged thyroid symptoms include: compressing of vital structures of the neck such as trachea he esophagus making breathing and swallowing rather difficult. Enlarged thyroid may also result in regular cough, feeling shortness of breath, hoarse voice, feeling fullness in the neck, feeling like meal gets stuck in the throat.

Enlarged thyroid is treated by prescribing thyroid hormone preparations containing T3 (Liothyronine) and T4 (Levothyroxine) hormones.
Another Thyroid gland diseases include:

  • Thyroid Cancer is a very common malignant tumor. The most of patients with the thyroid cancer have a very long term survival. The symptoms of thyroid cancer usually include: enlarged lymph nodes, pain in the neck, hoarseness. The vast majority of thyroid nodules (more than 75%) are benign. In most cases thyroid cancer does not any significant symptoms and is typically found during examinations. Malignant nodules are sometimes identified by touch.
  • Solitary Thyroid Nodules are abnormal growths of thyroid tissue which are located at the edge of the thyroid gland. This is the very common diseases which affect nearly half of the human population.
  • Hyperthyroidism is a thyroid diseases which is characterized by increased production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4. The treatment of hyperthyroidism usually includes surgical intervention, anti-thyroid medicines and radioactive iodine application.
  • Hypothyroidism thyroid diseases characterized by decreased production of hormones. It is a very common problem. In most cases the treatment of Hypothyroidism includes the use of hormonal replacement therapy with analogues of T3 (Cytomel) and T4(Eltroxin, Synthroid) hormones.


Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. The symptoms of Thyroiditis include fever, pain. The most common types of the diseases are Hashimoto's Thyroiditis , De Quervain's Thyroiditis, Silent Thyroiditis.