Respiratory diseases

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Respiratory system diseases - common cold and tonsillitis

The diseases of the respiratory system are the most widespread. According to the latest data almost every human being on earth has ever experienced some respiratory diseases.

The most common respiratory diseases  include:

Tonsillitis is the infectious disease which involves the inflammation of the palatine tonsils. The inflammatory process can develop in other parts of adenoid tissues of the pharynx and larynx - in the lingual, guttural, epipharungeal, tonsils parts. Tonsillitis can cause fever and sore throat. There are known 3 main types of tonsillitis such as chronic, acute and sub acute. Tonsillitis is more common for children, adolescents and adults under 35-40 years of age especially in autumn and spring. Initially, the disease is usually caused by the microorganisms which affect tonsils. Some of the bacteria strains include staphylococcus, streptococcus, pneumococcus. The contamination can be caused by patient's own microorganisms (caries, chronic tonsillitis) or it can be airborne infection.  After contamination, bacteria begin to multiply and produce toxins which cause intoxication (weakness, loss of appetite, fever). The symptoms of tonsillitis include headache, sore throat, joint pain, fever, weakness. The temperature during tonsillitis is high (38.5- 40 Celsium degree). In 1-2 days white patches can occur on the surface of the tonsils. This is follicular tonsillitis. Lacunar tonsillitis represents a purulent spots on the surface of tonsils. The inflammation of the tonsils may result in necrosis with purulent discharges. This type of tonsillitis is called necrotic form of tonsillitis. The treatment of tonsillitis includes the following approaches:

At the beginning of the disease it is necessary to follow bed rest (to lower the risk of heart, kidney and joint complications). It is recommended to drink enough warm water (milk with honey, tea with lemon), broth, gruel, and drench.

Medicinal therapy includes the application of antibacterial preparations (antibiotics) and anti-inflammatory medications. The scheme of therapy is indicated only by a specialized medication staff. Symptomatic therapy should be carried. Symptomatic therapy includes the application of anti-tussive drugs, analgetics (pain killers), expectorants, mucolytics.  Self-treatment may lead to unpleasant complication.

Another very common disease of the respiratory disease is common cold. Common cold is a mild disease which is caused by viruses. According to the data of World Health Organization more than 1 billion cases of common cold were reported in the USA last year. Currently there are known more than 200 viruses which may cause common cold. Some of them like rhinoviruses may cause serious diseases. At the same time other viruses such as parainfluenza and syncytial virus causes only mild symptoms in adults, but in children may result in severe infections of the lower respiratory tract. The most common viruses which cause common cold include: rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenoviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, enteroviruses, paramyxoviruses, influenza A and B viruses and others. Common cold is contagious disease. The symptoms of common cold include:

  •          Stuffy nose
  •          Headache
  •          Cough
  •          Sore throat
  •          Running nose
  •          Nasal congestion

In most cases these common cold symptoms are usually mild and last 5-15 days. If the symptoms of common cold persist more than 2 weeks please inform your health care provider. Fever is not high and is not common. Fever is especially common for Flu infections.  The complication of common cold may result in the development of bacterial infections such as sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media which require the application of antibiotics.  

In spite of a lot of claims which guarantee quick and full recovery, there is only one way for the infection to pass away. And this way is time. The most common option for the treatment of common cold are bed rest, drinking plenty of warm waters, using lozenges or sprays to relieve sore throat, taking certain medications such as nasal decongestants, cough suppressants, expectorants, antihistamines, certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antitussives.

Nasal decongestants include a group of medicines which are applied directly in the nasal cavity. Nasal decongestants are available in the form of drop or nasal sprays. These medication work by narrowing blood vessels in the nasal cavity, relieving edema and lower the production of mucous. The most widespread nasal decongestants include Oxymetazoline, Phenylephrine, Xylometazoline and Naphazoline. All of these medications should not be taken more than 3 days. The use of nasal decongestants for more than 4 days may worsen your condition.
Antitussives are medication which suppress cough. Antitussives medicine include different groups of medications. Sinecod (butamirate) is one of them. Sinecod is used in dry cough of a different origin, even in pertussis. Sinecod is effective remedy which rapidly relieves dry cough. Butamirate citrate is safe and well tolerable medication which improves the respiratory function, does not contain narcotic substances, does not inhibit respiratory center, and does not act on the gastrointestinal tract. Sinecod can successfully be used in children, and elderly patients. Sinecod (butamirate) can be used even in prolonged use.

Sinecod is used in:

  •          Dry severe cough
  •          Pertussis
  •          Surgical interventions and bronchoscopy
  •          Cough suppression in pre- and postsurgical period

Expectorants
Expectorants  and mucolytic are a group of medicines which work by making cough productive. The most wide spread expectorants include Althea root, Antimony pentasulfide, Guaifenesin, Ipecacuanha , Levoverbenone, Potassium iodide. The most wide spread mucolytics include Acetylcysteine, Ambroxol, Bromhexine, Carbocisteine.

Antihistamines can also be taken for the relieve the symptoms of common cold.  Antihistamine medicines work by blocking H1 histamine receptors. By blocking H1 histamine receptors antihistamines help to prevent the development of allergic reactions and decrease their manifestations like rhinitis, cough, sneezing and others. Among all antihistamines are loratadine (Claritin), clemastine, suprastin, cetirizine (Zyrtec), fexofenadine (Allegra).

Analgetics or Pain Killers are used to relieve pain.  Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used in very often. All of them work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators called prostaglandins. NSAID's block the enzyme called cyclooxygenase II which is responsible for the biosynthesis of prostaglandins.  Pain killers include a list of such drugs like ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid, acetaminophen (Coldrex).

Before taking any of the above mentioned medicines please inform your health care provider. You can take only over-the-counter medicines in common cold without medical approval. Appropriate consultation you can find art your local pharmacy. If you have additional questions regarding the therapy of common cold and tonsillitis you can always apply to our customer support service.