What is Actovegin?
Actovegin is a natural medication which contains a free protein extract of calf blood. Avtovegin is a powerful antihypoxic agent, which activates metabolism of glucose and oxygen.
Which pharmaceutical formulations and dosage does the medication comes?
Actovegin comes in the form of:
- Injectable solutions 40mg/ml
- Solution for infusions 4mg/ml and 8mg/ml
- Coated tablets 200mg
- Gel 20% 20, 30, 50, 100g
- Cream 5% 20, 30, 50, 100g
- Ointment 5% 20, 30, 50, 100g
- Eye ointment 20% 5g
How does the medication works?
Actovegin ® is a hemoderivative which is produced by dialysis and ultrafiltration (the molecular weight for compounds is less than 500 daltons). Actovegin works by increasing the utilization of glucose, oxygen (increases the resistance to hypoxia), enhances energetic metabolism. All of this in general results in strengthening of energetic state of the cells (especially in case of oxygen deficit). Initially, extracellular glucose enters the cell through the appropriate transport mechanisms, after that glucose is metabolized. Products of glucose break down participate in the citric acids cycle. In results of this cycle some important amino acids are produced such as glutamate and aspartate. Numerous experiments have shown that inositol oligosacharides are able to regulate some of the insulin-dependent enzymes, such as cAMP-phosphodiesterases, adenylate cyclase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. inositol oligosaccharides fraction of Activegin activates pyruvate dehydrogenase and thus increases glucose utilization.
Actovegin ® also stimulates oxygen consumption. This leads to the stabilization of the cells plasma membrane during ischemia and reduces the formation of lactate.
The medication increases the intracellular levels of glucose, improves oxidative metabolism, thus improving energy balance and deposit, the amount of ATP, ADP, glutamate, aspartate and GABA in increased as well. In cerebrovascular disorders (for example in patients with dementia), the transport of glucose through the blood-brain barriers and it utilization is significantly decreases. At the same time the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and acetylcholine concentration are reduced as well. The preparation Actovegin acts directly on glucose mechanisms of utilization and the condition of patients is gradually improving. The medication possesses its therapeutic effects also in peripheral (arterial and venous) blood disorders and their complications (arterial angiopathy, ulcerous damage of the lower extremities). The drug is actively used to speed up to process of wounds and burns healing.
It is not possible to study pharmacokinetic characteristics of the medication. The medication contains natural components which are presented in the human organism as well. The medication can be used in patients with mild and moderate liver or kidney disorders, elderly patients and children.
When the medication is prescribed?
Actovegin injections are indicated for the treatment of the following conditions:
Metabolic and vascular disorders of the brain:
- Syndrome of cerebral insufficiency
- Ischemic strokes
- Cranial injury
- Peripheral (arterial and venous) vascular disorders and its complications (arterial angiopathy, trophic ulcers)
- Wounds healing
- Ulcers of different origin
- Trophic disorders (bed sores)
- Secondary regenerative processes
- Radiation damage of the skin, mucous linings, nerve tissue
- Hypoxia and ischemia of different organs and tissues
Activogin tablets are indicated
- in the complex treatment of cerebrovascular disorders
- in peripheral (arterial and venous) vascular disorders and their complications (angiopathy, trophic ulcers).
When the medication is contraindicated? Actovegin is contraindicated in allergic predisposition to the medication and its analogues like Solcoseryl, Cerebrolysin and others.
Actovegin solution for infusion is contraindicated for patients with cardiac failure, pulmonary edema, oliguria, anuria, water retention, hyperhydration.
The medication should be used with caution in high chloride and high sodium blood levels
Make sure to consult your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Which are Actovegin special cautions?
In case of high risk of anaphylactic reactions it is recommended to infuse a trial dose (trial injection 2ml intramuscularly) before the infusion. In case of intramuscular injections not more than 5ml of solution should be injected. It is important to control electrolyte and water balance of the organism.
Which are possible side effects?
In patients with hypersensitivity reactions it was observed allergic reactions ( hives, edema, drug fever). In this case the use of the medication should be stopped. In very rare cases the medication may cause anaphylactic reactions. In the case of anaphylactic reactions a corresponding therapy should be carried (high doses of corticosteroids, infusion of plasma substitute, catecholamines).
Can the medication interact with other medicines?
There are no known any drugs interaction with Actovegin. You should not mix injectable solution of solution for infusion with other medications in one vial.
How the medication is used?
Actovegin injections are used intravenously and intramuscularly. The dose is determined individually relying on the indication, severity of the disease, the response of the organism to the medication, drug tolerability. Tablets are taken orally with a glass of water swallowing whole. Tablets should not be chewed or crashed. The recommended dose for tablets is 1-2 tablets 3 times a day before meal (the right dose should be determined by a doctor).
How the medication should be stored?
You should keep the medicine out of reach of children in protected from light place at temperature not higher than 25C. Do not store the medication at the bathroom.
Which is the manufacturer of Actovegin?
The drug is made by Nycomed (Austria)